Wastewater Reuse in Thanh Tri District, Hanoi Suburb, Vietnam
Authors: Lan Huong Nguyen, MSc; Viet-Anh Nguyen, PhD; and Eiji Yamaji, PhD (Hanoi University of Civil Engineering, Vietnam)
In Vietnam, a large number of urban and peri-urban farmers rely on wastewater for irrigated agriculture and aquaculture. In Hanoi alone, an estimated 658,000 farmers use wastewater to irrigate 108,178 ac (43,778 ha) of land (Raschid-Sally and Jayakody, 2008).
Thanh Tri is a peri-urban district located in the south of Hanoi, downstream of the To Lich River, one of the main streams contaminated with wastewater from urban areas. Irrigation systems designed to uptake water from the To Lich River have been in use in some communes of the district water since the 1960s and are used to irrigate hundreds of hectares of agricultural land.
In recent years, increased contamination from urban wastewater and industrial effluents has created problems for the traditional practice of wastewater reuse: loss of agriculture and aquaculture production affect the health of farmers and consumers. Thanh Liet commune in this district has designed a decentralized wastewater management system (DWMS) to
accommodate wastewater reuse.
Figure 2 Chemical Oxygen Demand (KMnO4) measured along the drainage channel in March 2011